Non-Annotated Bibliography Example

Bibliographies are used to cite sources that are used in a research paper.  An annotatedbibliography is more than a mere list of sources. It includes:

  • A summary - includes information that explains what information the source provides
  • An evaluation - explains why or how the notation is a useful source. It can also speak to the validity of the source in terms of its scholarly nature
  • An explanation of value - speaks to the relevance of the citation to the research paper

Some annotated bibliographies offer only summaries, while others offer all three components. It is important to assess what the audience of the research paper will be seeking before crafting an annotated bibliography.

Annotated Bibliography Format Styles

Summary Format Styles

The basic format of an annotated bibliography is the same as a non-annotated bibliography entry. The difference is that the publication information about the source material is followed with the annotation that reviews and evaluates the material.

Here are the two basic format styles:

APA (American Psychological Association) Style

StyleBaker, T. (1995). Gun control and You.  Stevenson Learning Law Review, 45 (2), 180-193. The author researches several federal and state firearms regulations and their effect on the everyday citizen. By testing his hypothesis that firearms regulations have an inherent effect on everyday citizens, findings yield in support of the hypothesis. In contrast, Baker cited in an earlier study the complete opposite findings. 

MLA (Modern Language Association) Style

StyleJohnson, Jaime. "Gun Control: Your Only Means of Defense.” Researcher's Special Journal  (1999): 254-325. Print. The author researches several federal and state firearms regulations and their effect on the everyday citizen. By testing his hypothesis that firearms regulations have an inherent effect on everyday citizens, findings yield in support of the hypothesis. In contrast, Baker cited in an earlier study the complete opposite.

Full 3-Component Format Style

Crohn’s and Colitis - An Annotated Bibliography

Crohn’s and Colitis Drug Effective in Trials. (2013). Medical News Today. Retrieved from: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/265128.php 

Published on the website Medical News Today, this article discusses the research findings of two studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Vedoluzimab is a drug being tested to help Crohn’s and Colitis patients deal with the debilitating effects of these diseases. The article briefly outlines the research suggesting effectiveness of the drug. 

 

MediLexicon International, the publisher of the article, is a U.K. based health care internet publishing company that is dedicated to providing top notch unbiased content. Publishing since 2003, this reputable company’s articles are reliable for use for research support. 

Glover, Sonia B. Coping With Crohn’s, The Pain and The Laughter. Newfoundland and Labrador: Boulder Publications. 2007. Print

 

This insightful account of one woman’s struggles with her symptoms and diagnosis of Crohn’s provides valuable personal information for those struggling with Crohn’s. 

 

Published by Boulder Publications, a self-proclaimed “publisher of high quality books,” this book is a useful tool to understand Crohn’s disease. It is a reliable resource for anecdotal information about Crohn’s disease. 

 

Linking Vitamin D Deficiency to Inflammatory Bowel Disease. (2013). Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Journal. Retrieved from: http://journals.lww.com/ibdjournal/Fulltext/2013/09000/Linking_Vitamin_D_Deficiency_to_Inflammatory_Bowel.26.aspx

 

A comprehensive scholarly article about the links between Vitamin D and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, this piece offers scientific information about how Vitamin D works within the body, and information from a wide variety of doctors and researchers that supports a link between the vitamin and IBD disorders. 

 

Scientific and evidence based, this journal article from the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundations of America’s journal is a highly useful resource to support the topic of this paper. 

 

No Reservations - How to Take the Worry Out of Eating Out. (2013). CCFA: Take Charge Magazine. Retrieved from: http://www.ccfa.org/assets/pdfs/diningout.pdf

 

An insightful article, this piece gives information to those suffering with Crohn’s and Colitis to help to ease the anxiety and stress of eating outside of the home. 

 

Including information that is research based, and published by the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America, this resource is highly reliable and gives a useful context for the information within this research paper. 

Creating an Annotated Bibliography

Some tips for creating a well-annotated bibliography include:

  • Consider which writing style is required of your research. One of the things to keep in mind about APA and MLA format is that there is a distinguishing difference. For example, MLA format is usually double spaced within the citation and between each citation.
  • Use the third person when writing. 
  • Make a list of the points which the author emphasized as relative to the topic that you were researching.
  • Make sure that the sources which you used are aligned or in agreement with your stance on the research issue. This will helps to make a stronger argument for your stance on the issue that you researched.

In summary, the key to writing a complete and properly formatted annotated bibiography is to review your source material, take detailed notes, select the format to be used for the annotations. Summarize the content, providing information that describes and evaluates the source material.

Do you have a good example to share? Add your example here.

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Examples of Annotated Bibliography

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Bibliographies are used to cite sources that are used in a research paper.  An annotated bibliography is more than a mere list of sources. It includes:A summary - includes information that explains what information the source providesAn evaluation - explains why or how the notation is a useful source. It can also speak to the validity of the source in terms of its scholarly natureAn explanation of value - speaks to the relevance of the citation to the research paperSome annotated bibliographies offer only summaries, while others offer all three components. It is important to assess what the audience of the research paper will be seeking before crafting an annotated bibliography.

What is an annotated bibliography?


What is the purpose of an annotated bibliography?
Organization of an annotated bibliography
Annotations vs. Abstracts
Elements of an annotation
Structure of an annotation
Citation format
Examples of an annotated bibliograhy entry
Links to annotated bibliographies on the web
Examples of book-length annotated bibliographies at Scribner Library


What Is an Annotated Bibliography?

An annotated bibliography is an organized list of sources (may be any variety of materials, books, documents, videos, articles, web sites, CD-ROMs, etc.) with an accompanying paragraph that describes, explains, and/or evaluates each entry in terms of quality, authority, and relevance.


What Is the Purpose of an Annotated Bibliography?

An annotated bibliography may serve a number of purposes, including but not limited to:

A review of the literature on a particular subject

Illustrate the quality of research that you have done

Provide examples of the types of sources available

Describe other items on a topic that may be of interest to the reader

Explore the subject for further research

The annotated bibliography may be selective or comprehensive in its coverage. A selective annotated bibliography includes just those items that are best for the topic while an exhaustive annotated bibliography attempts to identify all that is available on a subject.


Organization of an Annotated Bibliography 

The organization of the annotated bibliography, if not prescribed by faculty instructions, may be one of various methods, including but not limited to:

Alphabetical

Chronological: either by date of publication or by period of subject matter (century, era, decade, event, year)

By subtopic

By format (articles, books, government documents, media, web pages, etc.)

By language


Annotations vs. Abstracts 

Annotations in an annotated bibliography usually perform two functions, describe the source and evaluate the source. The annotation is a concise description of a particular source, including important aspects of content not evident in the title. It enables the researcher to establish the relevance of a specific journal article, book, research report, or government document, etc. and to decide whether to consult the full text of the work. Abstracts, such as those found in various periodical databases or those accompanying scholarly journal articles are usually just descriptive summaries.


Elements of an Annotation 

Information found in an annotation may include:

1. qualifications of author(s);

"Based on 20 years of study, William A. Smith, Professor of English at XYZ University...";

2. purpose/scope:

"...sets out to place John Turner in eighteenth century England and show the development of his philosophy in relation to contemporary social mores";

3. audience and level of reading difficulty:

"Smith addresses himself to the scholar, albeit the concluding chapters on capital punishment will be clear to any informed layman";

4. bias or standpoint of author :

"Turner gears his study more to the romantic aspects of the age than the scientific and rational developments";

5. relationship to other works in the field:

"Here Turner departs drastically from A. F. Johnson (Two will not, New York, Riposte Press, 1964) who not only has developed the rational themes of the eighteenth century but is convinced the romantic elements at best are only a skein through the major prose and poetry";

6. findings, results, and conclusions (if available); and

7. format/special features

(e.g., bibliography, glossary, index, survey instruments, testing devices, etc.).


Structure of an Annotation 

Length: Generally, annotations constitute one paragraph and are approximately 100 -150 words long, with a goal of concise and explicative annotations

Person: The third person is the standard, though first person may be appropriate for certain types of annotated bibliographies.

Language and Vocabulary: Use the vocabulary of the author, as much as possible, to convey the ideas and conclusions of the author. If you use a quotation excerpted from the work set it within quotation marks. Vary your sentence structure and try to avoid repetivitive vacuuous phrases in your annotations, such as, "The author states," "This article concerns," or "The purpose of this report is," as well as sentences starting with "It was suggested that," "It was found that," and "It was reported that."

Format - Sentences: Whole sentences are preferable, but single descriptive words, and simple phrases or lists may be acceptable.

Format - Paragraphs: Annotations should be one paragraph long. The paragraph should contain a statement of the work's major thesis, from which the rest of the sentences can develop.


Citation Format  

The bibliography portion of the annotated bibliography usually follows one of the standard citation formats, APA, MLA, Chicago, etc. Citation format information is available from the library's Cite a Source web page. The most complete citation resources remain in print; copies of the APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, ASA and ACA style guides are available at the reference desk.

For more information ask a reference librarian.


Examples of an Annotated Bibliography Entry  

Example 1:

Broude, Norma. Impressionism: a feminist reading. New York: Rizzoli, 1991.

In this publication Broude has taken full advantage of her feminist lens to scrutinize modern French science. Her text is accessible and reader-friendly and uses poststructuralism without becoming a slave to its theories. Her systematic examination of the field, particularly in "The Gendering of Art, Science, and Nature in the Nineteenth Century," reveals underlying patterns of gender discrimination inherent in traditional French philosophy, which upholds Descartes' "I think, therefore I am." Her examination of the social relations between art and science compels readers to take a harder more skeptical look at the sexual politics of postmodernism, whose theory seems to be rooted within the French Cartesian tradition. Her book should be required reading for anyone interested in art, the feminine principle, and how it is treated in a male-oriented universe. (From Feminist Art Criticism; an annotated bibliography. New York, G.K. Hall, 1993)

Example 2:

Dorival, Bernard. "Ukiyo-e and European Painting." pp. 27-71. In Dialogue in Art; Japan and the West. Tokyo: Kodansha, 1976.

Known in France around 1860, Ukiyo-e prints had an immediate influence on the vision and the craft of painters. First, Theodore Rousseau and Millet and then Whistler, Manet, and mainly Degas were profoundly affected. Asymmetrical compositions, scenes and landscapes represented from above or below, figures shown in close-up, pale palette, flat areas of color, the replacement of Albertian perspective with the system of opposed diagonals: all these innovations were taken up by the Impressionists, particularly Monet, who learned moreover not to reduce the scene he was painting to the limits of the canvas, and absorbed a pantheistic feeling for nature contrary to traditional Western humanism. Japanese graphic art had a continuing influence on French painting from the Post-Impressionists to the Nabis and the Fauves, as well as on the work of Ensor, Munch, Klimt and others. After the Renaissance rediscovery of ancient art, nothing had so influenced European painting as Japanese prints. (From Les Fauves; a sourcebook. Westport, Greenwood Press, 1994)


Links to Annotated Bibliographies on the Web 

Annotated Bibliography of Government Documents Related to the Threat of Terrorism and the Attacks of September 11, 2001 Example of an annotated bibliography arranged alphabetically by document title within broad subject areas, such as Weapons of Mass Destruction, Afghanistan, and Organizing the Government to Combat Terrorism.

Annotated Bibliography and Guide to Archival Resources on the History of Jewish Women in America Example of an annotated bibliography organized by format, i.e., categories of books, articles, collections of memoirs, oral histories and creative writings, as well as archival resources.

Avian Collision and Electrocution: An Annotated Bibliography Example of an alphabetically arranged annotated bibliography that also provides indexing for various subject, taxonomic, and geographic categories of information.

Scientific Misconduct: An Annotated Bibliography Example of a simple, alphabetically arranged, selective annotated bibliography.

Some Book-Length Annotated Bibliographies at Scribner Library 

African American women : an annotated bibliography / compiled by Veronica G. Thomas, Kisha Braithwaite, and Paula Mitchell. 2001 (Location: Reference Collection -- 1st floor Call Number: E185.86 T46 2001)

Animal rights movement in the United States, 1975-1990 : an annotated bibliography / Bettina Manzo. (Location: Reference Collection -- 1st floor Call Number: HV4764 .M36 1994)

Ethnomusicology research : a select annotated bibliography / Ann Briegleb Schuursma. (Location: Reference Collection -- 1st floor Call Number: ML128.E8 S4 1992)

Peyotism and the Native American church : an annotated bibliography / Phillip M. White. 2000 (Location: Reference Collection -- 1st floor Call Number: E99.R3 W4 2000)

Shakespeare and minorities : an annotated bibliography, 1970-2000 / Parvin Kujoory. 2001 (Location: Reference Collection -- 1st floor Call Number: PR2992 .K8 2001)


Adapted from:

Katz, William A., "Annotations" in Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science (Vol. 1; New York: Marcel Dekker, 1968)

Willams, Owen, "Writing an Annotated Bibliography," University of Minnesota, Crookson Library. Retrieved November 17,2004 "Writing Annotations," University of Toledo Libraries Retrieved November 17, 2004

"Writing an annotated bibliography," Lawrence University, Seeley G. Mudd Library Retrieved November 17, 2004

 

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