Divine Impassibility An Essay In Philosophical Theology Kant

What did I learn from reading and writing a review of this book? Partly the wisdom of Nancy Reagan: "Just say, 'No!'" The next time NDPR asks me to review an over 1,000-page book containing roughly 100 different essays, just say, "No!" That's my new philosophy. By not saying, "No," though, I learned more than I could possibly have imagined about, for example, Hegelian panentheism, highest clarity Daoism, and Ardhanarisvara's androgynous model of God. That said, I may have learned more than I wanted or needed.

The aim of the book, which began as a workshop at an APA meeting, is to explore, critique and compare "the major philosophical models of God" (1) and, as if that weren't enough, alternative ultimate realities, and to discuss such models and our understanding of models per se. The book is strongest on the exploration part, the parts where authors present their own views or expound those of historically famous thinkers such as Spinoza, Al-Ghazali or Hume. It is decidedly weaker on critique, comparison and conceptual clarification.

The book is organized around conceptual models rather than religions. For example, the section on classical theism contains essays on Aristotelian, Jewish, Christian and Muslim conceptions of God; the section on panentheism contains essays on Nicholas of Cusa, Kant, Schelling, Hegel, Pierce and Rahner, with a reflection on Hindu gods, to boot. The remaining sections are Conceptual Foundations, Neo-classical Theism, Open Theism, Process Theology, Ground, Start and End of Being Theologies, Ultimate Unity, Divine Multiplicity, Naturalistic Models of the Infinite, Against Modeling: Negative Theology, Diversity of Models of God and Alternative Ultimate Realities, and Practical Implications (except for Pamela Sue Anderson's essay on feminist conceptions of God, it is unclear why this latter section was thrown in).

"Model" is construed broadly to include everything from accounts of the nature of ultimate reality through metaphors to "indexical signs" of an indeterminate ultimate reality. What, given "model" thus broadly construed, are the major models of God and ultimate reality around the world (and historically)? Given the plethora of recent work in Christian philosophical theology, one might have expected a Christian models of God book. While Diller and Kasher originally sought monotheistic models of God, they expanded to include polytheisms, non-theistic religions, and even a-theisms. Hence, the bulky title. One thing for certain, this book is encyclopedic. I will not discuss all the essays but will give the reader a sense of the book as a whole (along with its strengths and weaknesses).

The opening conceptual section, which discusses models more systematically, addresses the questions: "How do we map the God/ultimate reality terrain (what are models)?," "What is the map of the God/ultimate reality terrain (have we an exhaustive set of possibilities)?," and "Can we know where on the map of the God/ultimate reality terrain we should make our own home (can we know which among the possibilities is true)?"

The book seems to take a surprisingly wrong turn right at the beginning. Robert Neville argues, in a rather neo-Kantian vein, that ultimate reality is indeterminate and so cannot be modeled (determined) by human beings. One wonders, then, how he can claim that our models of determinate reality (elements in our world) -- persons, states of consciousness, and emergence -- could possibly serve as signs or pointers to ultimate reality. Lawrence Whitney's Nevillian skepticism about modeling ultimate reality likewise carries along with it a Kantian agnosticism about the nature of ultimate reality (though we can, Whitney contends, model the boundary between ultimate indeterminate reality and our determinate world). Thankfully, for a book that aims to discuss models of God, these two essays, which eschew models, are among the weakest of the bunch. Whitehead argued that there are 32 possible permutations of divine properties: eternality, temporality, consciousness, knowledge of the world, etc. Donald Viney shows Whitehead's failure of imagination: with just a few additions of possible divine properties, such as divine creativity, there are 256 alternatives for ultimate reality! Viney thus raises the issue of "unexplored alternatives" for thinking about ultimate reality. Michael Antony offers a clever argument that we might be able, for all we know, to acquire knowledge of ultimate reality and that, moreover, it is rational to hope that we can. We don't yet have much sense of what a model is, but we do know that there are at least 256 of them and that we might know, if Neville and Whitney are wrong, which of them is true.

Classical theism. After R. Michael Olson's nimble discussion of Aristotle's theology (of a first and unmoved mover who is also the final cause), Elliot Dorff reminds us of the Jewish prohibition against idolatry, which would motivate Maimonides' negative theology (and its problems and prospects for imaging God). John Peter Kenney, Katherin Rogers, Robert Kennedy and Eric Silverman return us to the Aristotelian classical God of Augustine, Anselm and Aquinas as immutable, timelessly eternal, impassible, perfect and, perhaps most fundamentally, simple. Al-Ghazali and Ibn Rushd likewise, according to Ali Hasan, struggled to fashion a positive Quranic theology that would both affirm transcendence and avoid anthropomorphism.

We have four traditions -- Greek, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim -- that share metaphysical and theological concerns and intuitions, and at various points roughly converge on a single, classical notion of God. And yet there are deep differences, ones that suggest a certain plasticity or even relativity of concepts and values. Epistemic differences are likewise deep. How is reality known? Through experience (Augustine and al-Ghazali), prayer (Augustine and Anselm), a priori argument (Anselm), a posteriori arguments (everyone), scripture (everyone but Aristotle), nothing (John Bishop, in a later chapter), practice (William James and Bishop, in later chapters), and/or mysticism (al-Ghazali)? Does transcendence preclude any human comprehension of God, entailing that God is the something we know not what? And if theological skepticism is thought avoidable, how are human concepts, images, and metaphors capable of grasping non-human reality? These sorts of issues raise their heads throughout each section but are seldom discussed.

Neoclassical and open theism. Neoclassical and open theism affirm perfect being theology while rejecting Anselm's precise specification of great-making properties. In one of the volume's best papers, Yujin Nagasawa, based on the problem of evil, rejects Anselm's OmniGod (God as omnipotent, omniscient and omnibenevolent) in favor of a Maximal God (God has a maximally consistent set of knowledge, power and benevolence). In general, it seems that non-classical theists are moved by various problems of evil considerations. How could a perfectly good God sovereignly will, say, the Holocaust? Or, how could a perfectly good God foreknow the holocaust and not prevent it? Open theists, for their part, reject the meticulous providence (God ultimate wills everything) and exhaustive Foreknowledge of classical theists (and so, as David Woodruff argues, God takes risks). Alan Rhoda argues that open theism offers a more adequate model of divine power than does process theism.

Process theology and panentheism. Probably because I knew the least about process theism, I found this section the most interesting and, at the same time, the most frustrating. Roland Faber's informative introduction set the stage for understanding a Whiteheadian/Jamesian theism based on pure experience. James's finite theism, according to Jonathan Weidenbaum, creates metaphysical space for human freedom while motivating and empowering our occasionally disheartening struggle against suffering. Philip Clayton's introduction to panentheism considers how God could be both immanent ("the world is contained within the divine") and transcendent ("God is also more than the world"). Stephen Palmquist's remarkably clear (that is unKantian) exposition of Kant's religious views as panentheistic contained such little known gems as "in his younger adult years he [Kant] sometimes preached in a country church" (400) and Kant "explicitly confesses that he must believe in God and a future life in order to prevent himself from 'becoming abhorrent in my own eyes'" (403). Whether or not Kant was a panentheist, Palmquist squashes the fashionable claim that Kant was not a theist. Glenn Magee's essay on Hegel made Hegel seem more like a process theist than a panentheist (and, even after reading all of the other essays in these two sections, made me wonder whether or not I really understood the difference). After setting aside Pierce's "gnarly neologisms" (433), Jeffrey Kasser offers a fascinating and reasonably coherent picture of Pierce's religious cosmology (and why it's not just an idle afterthought to his more widely accepted philosophical views). One conceptual problem for process thought: if experience is that which most fundamentally exists, how do we get beyond (my) human experience to divine reality?

Brief interlude. I'm not even up to page 500, and I'm wearing out; I've already read nearly forty, very different essays. This is not to the book's credit. The book could have and maybe should have ended at this point, with the editors offering some critical and constructive remarks about what a discussion and defense of these various theistic models amount to. What is the philosopher, for example, allowed to take as data? Opinions have varied from pure experience alone to Scripture alone. Did talking about models help in any way? Is talk about models per se, for example, somehow regulative of human thought? In short, what is the purpose of the book and has it achieved its purpose? Are we any closer . . . to what? At the end of 500 pages, I'm not sure (because I'm not exactly sure what the purpose is). Why did the authors not relate their essays to the initial chapters on conceptual foundations? What was the purpose of those chapters except for those authors to defend their own models of ultimate reality? At any rate, the first half of the book would make a fine introduction to those wishing to gain a wide understanding of various models of roughly monotheistic models of God. There is some discussion of models in section XII with Wesley J. Wildman's essay, one that critiques anthropomorphic models, one of the few that engages the limitations of models in useful and insightful ways.

Grab bag thoughts on the remaining essays. It's hard to know what to say about essays on topics that range from Levinas's non-existent god to Ibn 'Arabi's ultimate model of the ultimate. And it's hard to find common themes -- the editors were driven to title one section, "Ground, Start and End of Being Theologies." This section includes start of being, end of being, as well as start and end of being theologies. Tillich, who once preached, "God can reveal himself only by remaining veiled," managed to keep his own views veiled under his "ground of being" rhetoric. Little wonder his views have been variously interpreted as theistic, deistic, pantheistic, panentheistic, and atheistic. I'm not sure how well the various authors clarified ground of being theology's (deliberately?) obscure language.

Frankly, I found most of the papers on negative theology thin, and, upon reflection, that seemed quite appropriate. How much can one really say about a reality that cannot be known? I suppose the less said, the better.

Rita M. Gross discusses the perplexing issue of ultimates (gods?) in Buddhism. While it is fashionable to say that Buddhists, following the Buddha, are atheists, one finds in the actual practice of Buddhism a surprising number of gods (and in some cases a conscious, heaven-like afterlife). It seems to me that Gross's discussion of Buddhism, and maybe any number of other papers, might have profited from a discussion of the cognitive science of religion, which suggests that humans are hard-wired to conceive of Reality in various predictable ways. Except for a few esoterics who spend their entire lives training to overcome thinking in such categories, how many actual religious believers (not highly trained theologians or, again, esoterics) can conceive of God as a non-person? And when we talk about Buddhism and Buddhist conceptions of reality, whose Buddhism are we talking about? The simple and esoteric teachings of the Buddha or the living tradition that has both been informed by and departed from those teachings? One thing is certain: the book would have profited from an engagement with issues in cognitive science of religion. Again, Wildman's essay is the only one that engages with this material.

Overall, the papers are, for the most part, highly readable and assume very little background knowledge on the part of the reader. Key terms are explained, in their historical context when necessary, and needless abstracta and technicalia are kept to a minimum. Alternatively, although few of the papers are ground-breaking, there are great papers from Klaas Kraay, John Allan Knight, Nagasawa, Jeffery Long, Rhoda, Palmquist, Edwin Curley, and Lee Hardy. My personal favorite was Hardy's thorough thrashing of the claim that Hume was an atheist or an agnostic; that myth can finally be put to rest. Hardy's work alone was worth the price of the book (wait, the book costs $279, I take it back; it's worth the price of some book).

In the movie, Amadeus, the Emperor criticized a piece by Mozart. When pressed by Mozart to identify the flaw, he, relying on the advice of a counselor, declaimed, "Too many notes, too many notes." The ear, the Emperor thinks, can only hear so many notes. I'm afraid that's my criticism of this book: too many notes (the mind can process only so many models).

DRPS : Course Catalogue : School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences : Philosophy


Postgraduate Course: Philosophy of Religion (Online) (PHIL11159)

SchoolSchool of Philosophy, Psychology and Language SciencesCollegeCollege of Humanities and Social Science
Credit level (Normal year taken)SCQF Level 11 (Postgraduate)
Course typeOnline Distance LearningAvailabilityAvailable to all students
SCQF Credits20ECTS Credits10
SummaryThis course will provide an advanced survey of key contemporary topics in the philosophy of religion, including faith and rationality, the idea of God, arguments for the existence of God, the relation of religion to morality, religious realism.

The course will commence in teaching week 2.
Course description This course will explore care contemporary issues in philosophy of religion. Students will gain an up-to-date, in-depth and detailed instruction in topics such as: the concept of God (including eternity, omnipotence and omniscience); arguments for the existence of God (including arguments from the 'fine-tuning' of laws of nature, cosmological arguments, ontological arguments and moral arguments); the nature of and relationship between faith and reason; arguments against the existence of God (including the problem of evil, and arguments from the explanatory redundancy of God); religious realism and anti-realism; religious experience; and the nature of religious language. The aim is to cultivate a deep understanding of some of the most fundamental questions in philosophy.

Projected modules:
1. The Concept of God
2. Arguments for God: cosmological and teleological
3. Arguments for God: ontological and moral
4. Arguments against God: the problem of suffering
5. Arguments against God: divine hiddenness
6. Faith and reason
7. Religious experience
8. Religious realism and anti-realism
9. The nature of religious language
Pre-requisitesCo-requisites
Prohibited CombinationsOther requirements None
Pre-requisitesNone
High Demand Course?Yes
Academic year 2016/17, Available to all students (SV1) Quota:  None
Course StartSemester 2
Course Start Date23/01/2017
Timetable Timetable
Learning and Teaching activities (Further Info) Total Hours: 200 ( Lecture Hours 10, Seminar/Tutorial Hours 10, Summative Assessment Hours 4, Programme Level Learning and Teaching Hours 4, Directed Learning and Independent Learning Hours 172 )
Assessment (Further Info) Written Exam 0 %, Coursework 85 %, Practical Exam 15 %
Additional Information (Assessment)Courses will primarily be assessed through the submission of an essay of no more than 2500 words on a topic set by the course organiser. This will account for 85% of the student's course mark. The remaining 15% of the final course mark will be determined by the student's successful participation in the on-line activities associated with the course, such as the completion of on-line quizzes or making a certain number of relevant postings on the course discussion board.

Final essay deadline: Monday 17th April 2017 by 12 noon
Return deadline: Tuesday 9th May 2017
FeedbackFormative feedback will be continuous, through regular access to faculty and teaching assistants.

Students have the opportunity to submit a formative essay by week 6 deadline on Turnitin via Learn. The essay cannot be draft of summative essay but it can be on the same topic.

Formative essay deadline: Thursday 2nd March 2017 by 12 noon
Return deadline: Friday 24th March 2017
No Exam Information
On completion of this course, the student will be able to:
  1. demonstrate a good understanding of the key areas in philosophy of religion and engage with them critically.
  2. demonstrate strong analytical skills and philosophical acumen in approaching debates in philosophy of religion.
  3. engage critically with key textual sources in the field.
  4. engage constructively in cross-disciplinary conversations
  5. demonstrate an openness to personal growth through a commitment to dialogue across intellectual and cultural boundaries.
Adams, Robert M. 'Must God Create the Best?' Philosophical Review 81.3 (1972): 317-332.

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Adams, Robert. 'Moral Arguments for Theistic Belief.' In The Virtue of Faith. By Robert Adams, 144-163. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Adams, Marilyn McCord, and Robert M. Adams, eds. The Problem of Evil. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Adams, Marilyn McCord. Horrendous Evils and the Goodness of God. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.

Adams, Robert. Finite and Infinite Goods. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Alston, William. Divine Nature and Human Language: Essays in Philosophical Theology. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Alston, William P. Perceiving God: The Epistemology of Religious Experience. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.

St. Anselm of Canterbury. 'Proslogion.' In St. Anselm: Basic Writings. Edited and translated by Sidney N. Deane, 1-81. Chicago: Open Court, 1962.

Audi, Robert, and William J. Wainwright, eds. Rationality, Religious Belief, and Moral Commitment. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987.

Ayer, Alfred J. Language, Truth, and Logic. London: Victor Gollancz, 1936.

Clifford, William Kingdon. Lectures and Essays. Edited by F. Pollock. London: Macmillan, 1879.

Clark, Kelly. 'Religious Epistemology.' In Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by James Fieser and Bradley Dowden. 2009.

Craig, William Lane. The Kalam Cosmological Argument. London: Macmillan, 1979.

Craig, William Lane, and Quentin Smith. Theism, Atheism, and Big Bang Cosmology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Creel, Richard. Divine Impassibility: An Essay in Philosophical Theology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Davies, Brian, ed. Philosophy of Religion: A Guide and Anthology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Davies, Brian. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. 3d ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Dawkins, Richard. The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe without Design. New York: Norton, 1987.

De Cruz, Helen. The Enduring Appeal of Natural Theological Arguments, Philosophy Compass 9/2 (2012): 145-153.

Adams, Robert M. 'Must God Create the Best?' Philosophical Review 81.3 (1972): 317-332.

Adams, Robert M. 'Middle Knowledge and the Problem of Evil.' American Philosophical Quarterly 14 (1977): 109-117.

Adams, Robert. 'Moral Arguments for Theistic Belief.' In The Virtue of Faith. By Robert Adams, 144-163. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Adams, Marilyn McCord, and Robert M. Adams, eds. The Problem of Evil. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Adams, Marilyn McCord. Horrendous Evils and the Goodness of God. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.

Adams, Robert. Finite and Infinite Goods. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Alston, William. Divine Nature and Human Language: Essays in Philosophical Theology. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Alston, William P. Perceiving God: The Epistemology of Religious Experience. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.

St. Anselm of Canterbury. 'Proslogion.' In St. Anselm: Basic Writings. Edited and translated by Sidney N. Deane, 1-81. Chicago: Open Court, 1962.

Audi, Robert, and William J. Wainwright, eds. Rationality, Religious Belief, and Moral Commitment. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987.

Ayer, Alfred J. Language, Truth, and Logic. London: Victor Gollancz, 1936.

Clifford, William Kingdon. Lectures and Essays. Edited by F. Pollock. London: Macmillan, 1879.

Clark, Kelly. 'Religious Epistemology.' In Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by James Fieser and Bradley Dowden. 2009.

Craig, William Lane. The Kalam Cosmological Argument. London: Macmillan, 1979.

Craig, William Lane, and Quentin Smith. Theism, Atheism, and Big Bang Cosmology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Creel, Richard. Divine Impassibility: An Essay in Philosophical Theology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Davies, Brian, ed. Philosophy of Religion: A Guide and Anthology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Davies, Brian. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. 3d ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Dawkins, Richard. The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe without Design. New York: Norton, 1987.

De Cruz, Helen. The Enduring Appeal of Natural Theological Arguments, Philosophy Compass 9/2 (2012): 145-153.

Fischer, John Martin, ed. God, Freedom, and Foreknowledge. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1989.

Flew, Antony. 'The Presumption of Atheism.' Canadian Journal of Philosophy 2 (1972): 29-46.

Flew, Antony, and Alastair MacIntyre, eds. New Essays in Philosophical Theology. New York: Macmillan, 1973.

Flint, Thomas, and Alfred Freddoso. 'Maximal Power.' In The Existence and Nature of God. Edited by Alfred Freddoso, 81-113. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1983.

Flint, Thomas. Divine Providence: The Molinist Account. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Flint, Thomas, and Michael Rea, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Theology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Forrest, Peter. 'The Epistemology of Religion.' In The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Edited by Edward N. Zalta. 2009.

Ganssle, Gregory E., and David M. Woodruff, eds. God and Time: Essays on the Divine Nature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Geach, Peter. 'Omnipotence.' Philosophy 48 (1973): 7-20.

Harrison, Victoria. (1998) Putnam's internal realism and von Balthasar's religious epistemology. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 44(2), pp. 67-92.

Harrison, Victoria. (2005) Arguments from design: a self-defeating strategy? Philosophia, 33(1-4), pp. 297-317.

Harrison, Victoria. (2006) Internal realism and the problem of religious diversity. Philosophia, 34(3), pp. 287-301.

Harrison, Victoria. (2007) Metaphor, religious language and religious experience. Sophia: International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 46(2), pp. 127-145.

Harrison, Victoria. (2007) Feminist philosophy of religion and the problem of epistemic privilege. Heythrop Journal, 48(5), pp. 685-696

Harrison, Victoria. (2008) Internal realism, religious pluralism and ontology. Philosophia, 36(1), pp. 97-110.

Harrison, Victoria. (2010) Philosophy of religion, fictionalism, and religious diversity. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 68(1-3), pp. 43-58.

Harrison, Victoria. (2010) Hermeneutics, religious langauge and the Qur'an. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 21(3), pp. 207-220

Hartshorne, Charles. The Divine Relativity. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1948.

Hartshorne, Charles. The Logic of Perfection. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1962.

Hartshorne, Charles. Anselm's Discovery: A Re-examination of the Ontological Proof for God's Existence. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1965.

Hasker, William. God, Time, and Knowledge. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Helm, Paul. Eternal God. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988.

Hick, John. Evil and the God of Love. New York: Harper and Row, 1966.

Hoffman, Joshua, and Gary S. Rosenkrantz. The Divine Attributes. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.

Howard-Snyder, Daniel, ed. The Evidential Argument from Evil. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1996.

Howard-Snyder, Daniel, and Paul Moser, eds. Divine Hiddenness: New Essays. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Hughes, Christopher. On a Complex Theory of a Simple God. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Hume, David. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. New York: Penguin Classics, 1990.

Hunt, David. 'Simple Foreknowledge and Divine Providence.' Faith and Philosophy 10.3 (1993): 394-414.

Jaeger,Lydia. 'Against Physicalism-plus-God', Faith and Philosophy , 29 (2012): 295-312.

James, William. 'The Will to Believe.' In The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy. By William James, 1-31. New York: Dover, 1956.

Kant, Immanuel. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Edited by Mary Gregor. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Kenny, Anthony. The God of the Philosophers. Oxford: Clarendon, 1979.

Kvanvig, Jonathan. The Possibility of an All-Knowing God. London: Macmillan, 1986.

Kvanvig, Jonathan, ed. Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion. Vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

La Croix, Richard. 'The Impossibility of Defining 'Omnipotence'' Philosophical Studies 32 (1977): 181-190.

Layman, Stephen. 'God and the Moral Order.' Faith and Philosophy 19 (2002): 304-316.

Leftow, Brian. Time and Eternity. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Leslie, John. Universes. London and New York: Routledge, 1989.

Lewis, C. S. The Problem of Pain. London: Fontana, 1957.

Mackie, John L. The Miracle of Theism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.

MacDonald, Scott, ed. Being and Goodness. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Mackie, John L. 'Evil and Omnipotence.' Mind 64 (1955): 200-212.

Mackie, John L. The Miracle of Theism. Oxford: Clarendon, 1982.

Malcolm, Norman. 'Anselm's Ontological Arguments.' Philosophical Review 69 (1960): 41-62.

Malcolm, Norman. 'The Groundlessness of Religious Beliefs.' In Reason and Religion. Edited by Stuart C. Brown, 143-157. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1977.

Mann, William E., ed. The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Religion. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004.

Manson, Neil, ed. God and Design: The Teleological Argument and Modern Science. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Mavrodes, George. 'Some Puzzles Concerning Omnipotence.' Philosophical Review 72 (1963): 221-223.

Mavrodes, George. 'Defining Omnipotence.' Philosophical Studies 32 (1977): 191-202.

Mitchell, Basil. The Justification of Religious Belief. London: Macmillan, 1973.

Morris, Thomas V. Anselmian Explorations. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1987a.

Morris, Thomas V. 'Duty and Divine Goodness.' American Philosophical Quarterly 21.3 (1984): 261-268.

Morris, Thomas V., ed. The Concept of God. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987b.

Nagasawa, Yujin, and Erik Wielenberg, eds. New Waves in Philosophy of Religion. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Nagasawa, Yujin. A New Defence of Anselmian Theism, The Philosophical Quarterly 58/233 (2008): 577-596.

Nagasawa, Yujin. The Ontological Argument and the Devil, The Philosophical Quarterly 60/238 (2010): 72-91.

O�Connor, Timothy. Theism and Ultimate Explanation: The Necessary Shape of Contingency. London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008.

Oppy, Graham. Ontological Arguments and Belief in God. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Oppy, Graham. Arguing about Gods. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

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Pennock, Robert T., ed. Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics: Philosophical, Theological, and Scientific Perspectives. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001.

Peterson, Michael, and Raymond Vanarragon, eds. Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2003.

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Course URLSee Learn website
Graduate Attributes and SkillsStudents will acquire and enhance the following main graduate attributes:
- Ability to read and understand philosophical texts relevant to issues in philosophy of religion and to engage critically with them.
- Ability to engage in constructive discussion with peers and across disciplinary boundaries.
- Ability to engage philosophically with key areas in the current science-religion interface - to show strong analytical skills and philosophical acumen in approaching these debates.
- Ability to engage in independent research.

Students will acquire and enhance the following transferable skills:
- General analytical skills (the ability to construct, reconstruct, recognise and critically assess arguments and evidence).
- Organisational skills (the ability to manage time, to complete a large-scale and complex project)
- Team and group work (the ability to co�rdinate work with others to constructive ends, and to engage in collegial discussion and debate with others).
- General research skills (the ability to find, recognise and organise information relevant to a project, and to assess the import of it).
- Critical thinking (the ability to select and evaluate relevant data in texts).

Students will acquire and enhance the following professional skills:
- The ability to reconstruct and assess philosophical and theological arguments using the tools of logic and relevant evidence.
- The ability to understand relevant scientific texts, data and research methods.
- The ability to formulate a research goal (of an essay, or dissertation) and to complete a project - including large-scale complex projects on time.
- The ability to identify and use the methods and resources necessary for a given project.
Additional Class Delivery InformationPriory will be given to online MSc/Dip/Cert Epistemology, Ethics and Mind students in the first instance.
Keywordsphilosophy,religion,philosophy of religion,faith and rationality,concept of God,arguments for
Course organiserDr James Collin
Tel:
Email: James.Collin@ed.ac.uk
Course secretaryMiss Lynsey Buchanan
Tel: (0131 6)51 5002
Email: Lynsey.Buchanan@ed.ac.uk

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