Anileridine Synthesis Essay

The word “synthesis” is defined as a combination of elements to form a connected whole. Thus, a synthesis essay definition is an essay that combines different ideas into a whole to prove a point (otherwise called the thesis). Often, it comes with a text that you should analyze.


Table Of Contents


Writing Process

A key factor of writing a synthesis essay is an analysis of a given text or a prompt. In order to successfully analyze it, you must comprehend the text’s purpose, rhetoric, and the argument that the author’s claim, in other words, you are answering the question: “So what?”. Then, you must build your own claim, and write an essay around that.

Most Common Topics

A synthesis essay prompt must be negotiable. Like in the EssayPro's example above, Andrew Jackson’s negative views on Native American people were widely supported, today, however, they would be appalling. Depending on your assignment, you may have to choose a primary text. Choose a text that might have opposing viewpoints.

Good topics would be ones that are debatable, for example:

  • Daylight savings
  • Minimum wage
  • Abortion
  • Immigration policy
  • Global warming
  • Gun control
  • Social media

How Do I Write A Thesis?

Once you pick a topic of your paper, read your sources and establish your position. Make sure you thoroughly analyze the sources and get a good understanding of them, structure your claim or argument and write your thesis.

Example: Andrew Jackson’s fear of the Native American “savages” reflects the prejudices and ideas of the colonist people in the Union and the Congress.*

How Do I Write An Outline?

Creating an outline will help maintain the structure of your paper. If your essay is split into three parts, split your outline into three chunks. Paste supporting evidence, sub-arguments, and specific points in the appropriate sections. Make sure that every point somehow proves the claim in your thesis. Extra information or tangents will only hinder your essay. However, if information goes against your central claim, then you should acknowledge it as it will make your essay stronger. Make sure you have read all of your sources. When writing about the sources, do not summarize them; synthesis denotes analysis, not plot-summary.

Example:

  • Introduction
  • Thesis
    • Main point 1
    • Main point 2
    • Main point 3
  • Body
  • Main point 1
    • Evidence (quote from a source)
    • Analysis of Evidence
  • Main point 2
    • Evidence (quote from a source)
    • Analysis of Evidence
  • Main point 3
    • Evidence (quote from a source)
    • Analysis of Evidence
  • Conclusion
  • Restate main points and answer unanswered questions

Read more about how to write a great INTRODUCTION

How Do I Format My Essay?

The format depends on what style is required by your teacher or professor. The most common formats are: MLA, APA, and Chicago style. APA is used by fields of Education, Psychology, and Science. MLA is used for citing Humanities, and Chicago style is used for Business, History, and Fine Arts. Purdue Owl is a format guide that focuses mainly on MLA and APA, and Easybib is a citation multitool for any of your external sources.

Some key points are:

  • Times New Roman 12 pt font double spaced
  • 1” margins
  • Top right includes last name and page number on every page
  • Titles are centered
  • The header should include your name, your professor’s name, course number and the date (dd/mm/yy)
  • The last page includes a Works Cited

APA Format

Some key points are:

  • Times New Roman 12 pt font double spaced 1” margins
  • Include a page header on the top of every page
  • Insert page number on the right
  • An essay should be divided into four parts: Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, and References.

How do I write an AP English Synthesis Essay?

AP English Language and Composition is an extremely rigorous course that requires you to write essays that demonstrate deep understanding of the subject matter. In fact, if on the AP exam, your essay has perfect grammar and structure, you might still be awarded just 1 out of 9 points for not “defending, challenging, or qualifying your claim.” Sounds difficult, but it is doable. Before entering any AP class, it is best to read over the course overview and become familiar with the exam.

While writing, focus on the three branches of the AP English and Composition course: argument, synthesis, and rhetorical analysis.

Argument is the easiest component; create your claim and find specific supporting evidence. Convince your reader that you are right.

Synthesis requires you to read into multiple perspectives and identify an agreement and a disagreement between sources. This step is crucial to finding your own claim.

Rhetorical analysis deals with the author and his intentions. What was their purpose for writing this? Who is their intended audience? How does the author appeal to the audience and how does he structure his claim?

Essay Tips

There are two acronyms that are helpful with the three AP Lang writing branches.

Tip #1: SOAPS

Example text: Andrew Jackson’s speech to the Congress about sending Native Americans to the West.

Speaker: Identify the speaker of the piece, then analyze for bias and apply any prior knowledge that you have on the speaker.

Example: President Andrew Jackson had a bias against Native Americans. A piece written by Andrew Jackson about Native Americans will probably be written with a bias against him.

Occasion: Determine the time and the place of the written text, then identify the reason the text was written. Even if you aren’t sure of the reason, assume one and make your claim around it.

Example: Andrew Jackson was in office from 1829 to 1837. At this time, the Congress sent Native Americans to the West in order to clear the land for the colonists. Jackson was the one who made the proposal.

Audience: Who was the text directed to?

Example: Andrew Jackson’s speech was directed to a council.

Purpose: What is the text trying to say? Here, you analyze the tone of the text.

Example: Andrew Jackson appeals to pathos by calling Indians “savages”. His purpose is to portray Native Americans in a negative light, so the Congress passes the Indian Removal Act.

Subject: What is the main idea? What is the claim?

Example: Andrew Jackson wants the Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act because he believes Native Americans are uncultured and savage people.

Tip #2: Logos, Ethos, and Pathos

As you’ve probably learned before, Logos appeals to reason, Pathos appeals to emotion, and Ethos appeals to moral philosophy or credibility. However, for the AP Lang exam requires a wider understanding of the three.

If the text uses facts, statistics, quotations, and definitions, the speaker is appealing to Logos. Constituting various backup information is an extremely effective for people who want to persuade.

If the text uses vivid imagery and strong language it denotes Pathos, which is used to connect the audience to a piece emotionally; it is hardest to change the mind of a person who is linked to a subject via a strong emotion.

If the text attempts to demonstrate the speakers reliability or credibility, it is a direct appeal to Ethos. Using the example above, Andrew Jackson could have appealed to Ethos by stating the fact that he is the President of the United States, and thus, knows what is best for the union.

Often, Logos, Ethos, and Pathos lead to the use of logical fallacies.

Tip #3: DIDLS

This is a good shorthand for all textual analysis. While reading a text, try to pinpoint Diction, Imagery, Details, Language, and Sentence Structure in a piece. If anything stands out, add it to your analysis.

Rubric

  • High range essay (8-9 points)
  • Effectively develops a position on the assigned topic.
  • Demonstrates full understanding of the sources or text.
  • Correctly synthesizes sources and develops a position. The writer drives the argument, not the sources.
  • The writer’s argument is convincing.
  • The writer makes no general assertions and cites specific evidence for each point. His/her evidence is developed and answers the “so what?” question.
  • The essay is clear, well-organized, and coherent. It is a stand alone piece rather than an exam response.
  • Contains very few grammatical and spelling errors or flaws, if any.

Note: 8-9 essays are an extreme rarity. A strong ‘7’ paper can jump to an 8-9 if the writing style is mature and perceptive.

Middle-Range Essay (57)

  • Adequately develops a position on the assigned topic.
  • Demonstrates sufficient understanding of the ideas developed in sources
  • Sufficiently summarizes the sources and assumes some control of the argument. ‘5’ essays are less focused than ‘6’ and ‘7’.
  • The writer's argument is sufficient but less developed.
  • Writer successfully synthesizes the sources and cites them.
  • Writer answers the “So what?” question but may use generalizations or assertions of universal truth. Writer cites own experience and specific evidence.
  • Essay is clear and well organized. ‘5’ essays less so.
  • Contains few minor errors of grammar or syntax.

Note: A ‘7’ is awarded to papers of college-level writing.
A ‘5’ on one of the AP English Language and Composition essays designates a 3 on the AP exam. It most likely relies on generalizations has limited control of the claim and argument. ‘5’ essays often lose focus and digress.

Low-Range Essays (1-4)

  • Inadequately develops a position on the assigned topic.
  • The author misunderstands and simplifies the ideas developed in the sources.
  • Over-summarizes the sources, lets the sources drive the argument.
  • Writer has weak control of organization and syntax. Essay contains numerous grammatical/spelling errors.
  • Writer does not cite the sources correctly, skips a citation, or cites fewer than the required minimum of the sources.
  • Notes: ‘4’ or ‘3’ essays do assert an argument but do not sufficiently develop it.
  • A ‘2’ essay does not develop an argument.
  • A 1-2 essay has severe writing errors and do not assert a claim.

Synthesis Essay Example

Essay Writing Advice From Our Professional Team

James Owen, online essay writer from EssayPro

The article reviews the basics of how to write a synthesis essay as well as how to dissect and analyze text when writing an AP English essay. One thing I would like to reemphasize is the importance of your thesis statement. When you write an essay for class or exam, make sure to state your argument clearly. If the reader of your essay doesn’t understand your point of view then what you’ve written is futile.

My advice is: when writing an essay in a short period (such as in an exam room) make sure to articulate your argument in every paragraph and connect every single one of your ideas to the thesis. My tip is to write your thesis down on a piece of paper and reread it at every point to ensure that the information applies and reinforces what you’ve stated in your thesis. This tip also goes for when you are writing a longer piece of writing, as it is very easy to lose focus and stray away from your main point.

Struggling With Writing an Essay?

Still having trouble crafting a synthesis essay? Need editing or writing help? You should seek advice from professional writers. Here at EssayPro, writers have written countless papers and are experts in their field. You can request to write your paper or editing or proofreading assistance. Rest assured that your paper is in good hands!

Pethidine is a synthetic analgesic with opioid and spasmolytic properties. It was discovered in Germany in the 1930's as an antispasmodic agent, which was the original focus of research - it's narcotic activity was therefore not expected. The drug is a 4-phenylpiperidine derivative and is the prototype for this class. Related drugs include alphaprodine, anileridine, ketobemidone, difenoxylate, and fentanyl.

Use of pethidine is now primarily limited to the hospital setting, and only under limited indications. It is given orally, by parenteral injection or infusion, or by intrathecal or epidural injection as a single dose or a catheter infusion; this is all dependent upon the setting in which it is used. Pethidine is [believed to be] less likely to produce smooth muscle spasm and GI issues than are other opioids, making it particularly useful for colonoscopy and labor during childbirth. In the case of either, an intraspinal catheter is often used to deliver the drug throughout the epidural space of the spinal canal - In the case of a C-section, this is often done as an anaesthetic regimen, where the opioid is given spinally along with a local anaesthetic such as bupivicaine, and IV sedatives. In the right dose, this produces paralysis and loss of sensation of the body's midsection and lower portion, hopefully covering the desired site of operation.

Pethidine is a relatively weak opioid, slightly stronger than codeine. 75mg parenterally is equanalgesic to 10mg morphine or 100ug fentanyl. It's oral bioavailability is not well established, but it is believed that 150mg orally is roughly equal to 180mg codeine or 30mg morphine orally.

Prodines (Reversed Ester Group)

Prodine is a racemic mixture of two compounds, alphaprodine and betaprodine.

Prodine is a synthetic opioid of the phenylpiperidine type, closely related to pethidine. Simply reversing the 4-ester on pethidine and adding a 3-methyl off the piperidine ring creates prodine, a compound several times more potent with a favorable profile of side effects.

Prodine is the parent compound for its own class of potent analgesics - i.e. known informally as the 'reversed ester' analogues. Prodine and other reversed ester analogues have a potency and addiction liability similar to that of morphine.

Alphaprodine:

The only isomer used clinically. Known by the names Nisentil or Prisilidine.

Fast acting & short lasting. Optimal analgesic dose is 40 - 60mg subcutaneously, given every two or so hours.

May be given for analgesia or anaesthesia. Generally in the same settings as pethidine, mainly childbirth, dentistry, colonoscopy and similar procedures.

Shorter acting than both morphine and pethidine. Effects last only 1 or 2 hours. It has fewer side effects than morphine & pethidine, and may be less toxic than pethidine.

Produces tolerance, dependence and addiction. Dependence liability is greater than pethidine and approaches that of morphine.

Effects include analgesia, euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, nausea & vomiting.

Betaprodine:

Stronger than morphine and several times stronger than a-prodine. B-prodine produces effects similar to alphaprodine but is shorter acting and not often used clinically - though it has seen clinical use in settings where its short duration has been of value (i.e. trauma, induction of anaesthesia or childbirth).

MPPP: i.e. Desmethylprodine

O-demethylation of prodine creates MPPP - a major active metabolite of prodine. MPPP at one point was a popular compound for illicit clandestine production, and has a potency of about 70% that of morphine. However, there is a real risk of poor synthesis producing toxic impurities. When a 23 year old student hobbyist attempted to synthesize MPPP clandestinely, he instead ended up with the related compound MPTP, a neurotoxic agent that produced irreversible symptoms of parkinsons disease.

Allylprodine:

Allylprodine is about 23x the activity of morphine due to the presence of an allyl group which binds to an additional target on the mu receptor. Due to its potency, allylprodine would seem a good candidate for the clandestine chemist as a 4-phenylpiperidine type heroin substitute.

Other Prodine Analgogues:

Other reversed ester analogues include PEPAP, MPPP (desmethylprodine), promedol (1950's), prosedol (1990's), and meprodine - This group of compounds ranges in potency from a fraction that of morphine to several times stronger than morphine, at least.


Anileridine

N-aminophenethyl analogue of meperidine developed in the 1950's. Not used in the US and rarely used elsewhere. Given by oral or injection routes.

About 1/2 to 1/3 as potent as morphine when given parenterally, or 2-3x stronger than meperidine - Potency would be comparable to hydrocodone. Shorter acting than morphine. Its effects last 2-3 hours.

Has been used in obstetric analgesia, as a supplement to nitrous/oxygen anaesthesia, and for post operative pain.

Side effects are no more frequent than with meperidine. Respiratory depression is shorter in duration than with meperidine. Typical opioid side effects are common - including itching, miosis, nausea or vomiting & respiratory depression.

Doses of 100-150mg produce definite morphine-like subjective effects in post-addicts which is one study were compareable to 15-30mg morphine. Subjective effects include analgesia, euphoria, excitement or cheerfulness and sedation.

Anileridine will suppress morphine abstinence completely and acts like a typical full agonist.

Ketobemidone

Synthetic opioid and analogue of pethidine; specifically, a hydroxylated ketone of pethidine with several-fold greater potency (roughly 6x).

Acts as an agonist at mu opioid receptors. Some suggest a second mode of action as an NMDA antagonist through its metabolite norketobemidone.

Roughly equal in potency to morphine (1-2x morphine). 5-10mg subcutaneosly is roughly equianalgesic to 10mg morphine, 2mg hydromorphone, or 75mg pethidine.

Takes effect rapidly. Effects generally range from 4-8 hourse depending on dose and ROA (morphine generally lasts 3-4 hours).

Bioavailability of 34%, nearly identical to morphne (33%).

Greater sedative effect than morphine and methadone has been reported in literature.

Effective therapeutic dose has been observed to be lower than effective dose for producing euphoria. May therefore be less reinforcing thus less addictive to patients.taking the drug medicinally.

In those using the drug illicit purposes dependence liability is at least as high as morphine. A particularly severe withdrawal has been observed upon discontinuation.

Effective in extreme pain of long duration, possibly more so than morphine (according to P. Petolta).

Piritramide

Piritramide is a fully synthetic opioid. It is used in some countries, excluding the US, in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Its most common trade name is Dipidolor.

Piritramide is often given in hospital settings such as critical care/ICU or post-op, typically by the oral or parenteral routes. Chemically, it is a member of the phenylpiperidine family. It is structurally similar to loperamide and diphenoxylate, both used to treat diarrhea.

Its potency (per milligram) is slightly less than that of morphine; 15 mg of piritramide is equivalent to about 10 mg morphine, when given by the parenteral route. It is a long acting opioid and has a half life of 3-12 hours.

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